Past tense spanish conjugation

Past tense spanish conjugation DEFAULT

The Preterite Tense

The Preterite Tense (also spelled "preterit") is one of two ways to talk about events that happened in the past in Spanish. The preterite tense is used to indicate a single, completed action that took place at a specific point in time. For example:

Armando me llamó a las nueve.
Armando called me at nine o'clock.

Regresaron de España ayer.
They returned from Spain yesterday.

Olivia se fue esta tarde.
Olivia left this afternoon.

Preterite conjugations can be pretty tricky due to the large amount of irregular verbs and some other complicated situations. To learn how to form preterite conjugations, keep reading. For more on when to use the Preterite Tense, see Using the Imperfect and the Preterite.

Regular Preterite Tense Verbs

To conjugate regular "-ar" verbs in the preterite, take off the ending and add the following:

"-ar" endings:

-amos

-aste

-asteis

-aron

Don't let the "-é" in the yo form throw you off; it's still an "-ar" verb conjugation. It's absolutely critical that the "o" in the él/ella/usted form conjugation get an accent mark so it isn't confused with the present tense yo form conjugation.

To conjugate regular "-er" and "-ir" verbs in the preterite, take off the endings and add the following:

"-er" / "-ir" endings:

-imos

-iste

-isteis

-ió

-ieron

Here are some examples:

Preterite Spelling Change Verbs

The yo form endings for "-ar" verbs occasionally cause pronunciation problems because some letters are pronounced differently depending on the vowels that follow them. The letters "c" and "g," for example, sound different when they're followed by an "a" or an "o" than when they're followed by an "e" or "i." Since the preterite yo form ending is an "e", we need to change the spellings of the stems of "-car" verbs, "-gar" verbs, and "-zar" verbs in order to keep the pronunciation consistent. For example:

Tocar has a "-que" ending in the yo form to keep the original "c" sound being pronounced like a "k" rather than like an "s." Jugar now has a "-gue" ending to keep the original "g" sound pronounced like a "g" rather than like an "h." And lanzar now has a "-ce" because, well… anytime we can use a "c," we should. The "e" ending gives us an opportunity to do so.

It doesn't happen often, but "-guar" verbs will also require a spelling change. Take a verb like averiguar which means "to verify." When we conjugate in the yo form of the preterite, we need to add a "dieresis," which means the "u" becomes a "ü":

Yo averigüé los datos ayer.
I verified the facts yesterday.

The "ü" tells us to pronounce the "gu" like a "gw" so that our pronunciation will be consistent with the infinitive, averiguar.

These spelling changes only happen for "-ar" preterite verbs and only in the yo form because the "-e" is the only ending that creates problems for the "c," "g," "z" and the "gu."

More Spelling Changes

Certain "-er" and "-ir" verbs are also going to need spelling changes to keep pronunciation consistent. This time around it's the él/ella/Ud. and ellos/ellas/Uds. forms that cause problems. The endings for those conjugations are "-ió" and "-ieron." Notice how they both start with two vowels? If we have a verb whose stem ends in a vowel, and then we add one of those endings, we're going to end up with three vowels in a row. It's difficult to pronounce a word with a three vowel combination. To solve that problem, we change the "i" to a "y."

Some common trouble making verbs conjugated in the ellos/ellas/Uds. form:

infinitive:

three vowels:

i→y spelling change:

caer

caieron

cayeron

contribuieron

contribuyeron

creer

creieron

creyeron

leer

leieron

leyeron

incluir

incluieron

incluyeron

oír

oieron

oyeron

The él/ella/Ud. form conjugations will use the same spelling change. Here is a complete set of conjugations for some common verbs:

Note: In addition to the spelling change, it is necessary to add an accent mark to the , nosotros, and vosotros form endings. (The yo form already has an accent.)

As you can see, this "i" → "y" spelling change only occurs in the bottom row of conjugations.

Note: Verbs ending in or use and endings instead of and because they already have a sound in their stems: gruñó, zambulleron.

An exception to the "i" → "y" spelling change rule are "-guir" verbs and "-quir" verbs. While the stems do end in a vowel, the "u" is not actually being pronounced. Because of that, we can pronounce the three vowels in a row and a "y" is not necessary.

infinitive:

stem:

preterite:

extinguir

extingu-

extinguieron

Preterite Stem Changing Verbs

Stem Changing "-ar" and "-er" Verbs

All "-ar" and "-er" verbs which have stem changes in the present tense are completely regular in the preterite, which is to say that they don't have stem changes in the preterite. Notice how the stem does not change in any conjugation:

Stem Changing "-ir" Verbs

Stem-changing "-ir" verbs do have a stem change which is sometimes different from the present tense stem change; "e → ie" stem changers in the present tense become "e → i" stem changers in the preterite, "e → i" stem changers remain "e → i", and "o → ue" stem changers become "o → u":

present tense:

preterite tense:

e → ie

e → i

e → i

e → i

o → ue

o → u

However, this change only happens in the él/ella/usted form and the ellos/ellas/ustedes form:

In some books verbs like these will have special notations to let you know about the additional preterite stem change: sentir (e → ie, e → i), dormir (o → ue, o → u), etc.

Because these additional changes only take place on the bottom line of the conjugation chart they are sometimes referred to as "basement buddies."

Irregular Preterite Tense Verbs

The "U" Group, "I" Group, and "J" Group

There are many irregular preterite conjugations which have both stem changes (only in the preterite tense) and their own set of endings. It can be helpful to put them into groups to help you memorize them.

The "U" Group

Note: Any verbs based on these irregular verbs have the same irregularities; imponer → inpus-, proponer → propus-, detener → detuv-, etc.

Most of the irregular verbs have stem changes which involve the letter "u":

andar

anduv-

caber

cup-

estar

estuv-

poder

pud-

poner

pus-

saber

sup-

tener

tuv-

The "I" Group

Note: Any verbs based on these irregular verbs have the same irregularities; convenir → convin-, prevenir → previn-, etc.

There are a couple others with stem changes involving the letter "i":

querer


quis-

venir

vin-

For both of these groups, the "u" group "i" group, there is a different set of endings:

-e

-imos

-iste

-isteis

-o

-ieron

Note that these endings are very similar to the "-ir" verbs with the exception of the yo and él/ella/usted forms, and that there are no accent marks needed. Some examples:

The "J" Group

Note: Any verbs based on these irregular verbs have the same irregularities;
bendecir
 → bendij-, predecir → predij-, extraer → extraj-, etc.

There is one more group of stem changers, the "j" group:

conducir

conduj-

decir

dij-

producir

produj-

traer

traj-

The endings for the "j" group stems are almost identical to the "u"/"i"

-e

-imos

-iste

-isteis

-o

-eron

Notice that there is no "i" in the ellos/ellas/ustedes form ending. Some examples:

Other Irregular Preterite Verbs

There are several other completely irregular preterite verbs. Here are the conjugations for dar, hacer, ir, and ser:

Note: The verb satisfacer (to satisfy) follows the pattern of hacer: satisfice, satisficiste, satisfizo, etc.

Even though dar is an "-ar" verb, it takes "-er" / "-ir" verb endings (minus the accent marks).

If you look carefully, you'll notice that hacer isn't completely irregular (it could fit quite nicely the "i" group) but the need for consistent pronunciation forces us to use a "z" in the él/ella/usted form.

That's not a typo—the conjugations of ir and ser are identical—context makes the meaning clear.

And there is one more (slightly) irregular preterite verb:

ver:

vi

vimos

viste

visteis

vio

vieron

The yo and él/ella/Ud. forms of ver do not have accent marks.

Sours: https://www.spanish411.net/Spanish-Preterite-Tense.asp

Past Tense (Preterite) Conjugation: How to Conjugate Spanish Verbs

Spanish past tense conjugations are necessary for describing situations and events that have already happened. Preterite endings are one of the basic building blocks of Spanish that are fundamental to any conversation. Once you learn these conjugations, you’ll be able to talk about so much more with friends and family!

[This is Part 3 of a guide to conjugating Spanish verbs. In previous posts, we’ve reviewed the basics of conjugating Spanish verbs, as well as how to conjugate stem-changers.]

Why Learn thePreterite Endings?

If you’ve learned the basics of verb conjugation in the present tense, you’ve probably realized how limitedyou are without knowing the past tense versions of the verbs.Trying to describe only what’s happening in the immediate present, without being able to explain what happened even five seconds ago, is nearly impossible! This reveals how important it is to learnSpanish past tense conjugations.

In this post, we’re going to take your verb conjugation skills to a higher level. This involves learning Spanishpreterite endings, so that you aren’t restricted to only describing actions that are happening in the here-and-now.

How to Conjugate Verbs in the Spanish Preterite

Before we dive in, it’s important to note that there are two types ofSpanish past tense conjugations: the preterite and the imperfect. Here, we’ll start with Spanish preterite conjugations and review the imperfect in a future post.

The Spanish preterite tense is a way to express the past, and it breaks down verbs into five different endings. Keep reading to learn how to change a verb into its past tense form by usingpreterite endings.

Preterite -AR Endingsin Spanish Verbs

Here is an example using the Spanish verb mirar (to watch). First, shave off the -ar ending. Then…

  • If you are referring to Yo or ‘I,’ add the letter é to end the conjugated verb, forming miré.
  • If you are referring to  or ‘you,’ use the ending –aste, to form miraste.
  • If you are referring to él or ella or ‘he’ or ‘she,’ use the ending –ó to form miró.
  • If you are referring to nosotros or ‘we,’ use the ending –amos to form miramos. (This is the same as present tense conjugation!)
  • If you are referring to ellos or ‘they,’ use the ending –aron, to form miraron.

SEE ALSO: 46 Spanish Adjectives to Describe All Your Friends

Conjugating -ER Verbs in the Spanish Preterite

Now let’s use comer (to eat), as an example. First, shave off the -er ending. Next…

  • If you are referring to Yo or ‘I,’ use the ending –í, (instead of é) to form comí.
  • If you are referring to  or ‘you,’ use the ending –iste, to form comiste.
  • If you are referring to él or ella or ‘he’ or ‘she,’ use the ending –, to form comió.
  • If you are referring to nosotros or ‘we,’ use the ending –imos, to form comimos.
  • If you are referring to ellos or ‘they,’ use the ending –ieron, to form comieron.

Conjugating -IR Verbs in the Spanish Preterite

Conjugating -ir verbs shares the same rules as conjugating -er verbs. See the following chart as an example.

Vivir (to live):
Yo viví
Tú viviste
Él/Ella/Usted vivió
Nosotros vivimos
Ellas/Ellos/Ustedes vivieron

SEE ALSO: 75 Most Helpful Spanish Cognates

Ready for some Spanish past tense conjugation practice? Fill out the following chart:

Spanish Conjugation Chart - Preterite

12 Irregular Spanish Preterite Endings

There are 12 core verbs in Spanish that have irregular past tense conjugations in the preterite tense. Yes, that means that you’ll need to commit each irregular verb conjugation to memory. Fortunately, their main endings are similar to what we’ve already learned in this post: –é, –iste, –imos, –isteis, –ieron/*eron. Below are the 12 verbs, also known as “the dirty dozen.”

Spanish Dirty Dozen - Irregular Past Tense Conjugations

Let’s conjugate estar as an example:

Estar (to be):
Yo estuve
Tú estuviste
Él/Ella/Usted estuvo
Nosotros estuvimos
Ellas/Ellos/Ustedes estuvieron

Now that you know how to conjugate Spanish past tense verbs, you’re one step closer to becoming fluent in Spanish. With both present and past tense verb conjugations under your belt, the future tense will be no problem!You can return to this guide whenever you need a refresher on Spanish past tense conjugationsand preterite endings.

While resources such as this one are important for getting down the nuts and bolts of Spanish,working with a Spanish tutor is a sure-fire way to maximize your potential with the language.Outside of total immersion in a Spanish-speaking country, personalized lessons are the best way to get the conversational practice you need to become fluent.

Online Spanish classes are also a great way towork on your skills and make new friends.The convenience of an online classroom allows you to build communication skills, no matter where you are! Before you know it, you’ll be using verbs with preterite endings in everyday Spanish conversations.

Remember, the formula for learning a language is simple: The more you speak, study, and listen to Spanish, the better your conversational skills will become. Buena suerte!

 

Jason N width=Post Author: Jason N.
Jason N. tutors in English and Spanish in Fairfax, CA. He majored in Spanish at UC Davis, lived in Mexico for 3 years where he completed a Master’s degree in Counseling, and studied Spanish Literature and Psychology at the University of Costa Rica. Learn more about Jason here!
Madalyn Danielson
Madalyn Danielson
Sours: https://takelessons.com/blog/spanish-preterite-past-tense-conjugation-z03
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Spanish Verb Conjugation - Past, Present & Future Tenses

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Conjugating verbs in Spanish is one of the most challenging parts of learning Spanish as a second language. This guide will help you learn how to conjugate verbs correctly for past, present and future tenses. You will find charts to master Spanish verbs ending in IR, ER, AR and more.

If you want over 400,000 Spanish verb conjugations with you where ever you go, try Spanish Translator + app. You can download it for free on your iPhone or Android. Give it a try and power up to fluent Spanish!


What Does it Mean to Conjugate Verbs?

In English, we conjugate verbs by changing verbs like to run into he runs, I run, and we ran.

Notice how we conjugate the verb differently depending on the perspective (who) and the tense (when).

We can visualize these differences in conjugation with the chart below.

To run - Present Tense

I runWe run
You runYou guys run
He runs; she runsThey run


In these tables, each cell represents a different “who.” When you see these verb conjugation tables, you can think of them as displayed in the chart below.

SingularPlural
First PersonIWe
Second PersonYouYou guys; you all
Third PersonHe; She; ItThey; Them


Usually the tables are abbreviated into a 2 column, 3 row layout rather than 3 columns and 4 rows, but the concept is the same.

For example, here’s a basic conjugation for the english verb to walk in the past tense:

To walk - Past Tense

I walkedWe walked
You walkedYou guys walked
He walked; she walkedThey walked


The past tense is really easy to conjugate in English. You just add "ed" to the root verb and listo!

It’s much more complicated in Spanish, as you’ll learn, but the same concept applies.

How to Conjugate Verbs in Spanish

Conjugating verbs in Spanish requires an understanding of a few different concepts:

  1. Tense
  2. Perspective
  3. Verbs ending in -ar vs -er and -ir
  4. Irregular verb conjugations

With those in mind, usually conjugations include the root of the word being conjugated minus the last two letters of the verb (ar, er, or ir).

Verb Tense

In English, different tenses produce verb conjugations such as:

  • I eat
  • I am eating
  • I ate
  • I will eat

See how the verb tense effects the way we conjugate? The concept applies the same in Spanish. The most common tenses that you’ll conjugate are:

  • El Presente: The present tense
  • El Futuro: The future tense
  • El Pretérito Perfecto: The preterite tense (past tense, fixed)
  • El Pretérito Imperfecto: The imperfect tense (past tense, malleable)

There are other tenses that we won’t get into in this article.

 

El Pretérito vs El Imperfecto

El preterito and el imperfecto are both past-tense conjugations. Learning which one is more appropriate will take time, but we can simplify with these guidelines.


Use el preterito when speaking about:

  • A single event in the past
  • Events that began and ended in the past

Use el imperfecto when speaking about:

  • A habitual or repeated action
  • An ongoing action with no specified completion
  • General descriptions of physical or emotional states of being in the past
  • Expressions of time in the past

For more on the imperfect vs the preterite tense, check out this article by our friends at Lawless Spanish.

Perspective

In order to conjugate verbs, you must be speaking about a specific person or subject. There are only 6 perspectives you need to know, and they line up with the cells in the chart shown above.


The six perspectives for conjugating verbs are:

  • I → Yo
  • You → Tú
  • He/She/It → Él, Ella, Usted
  • We → Nosotros
  • You guys/you all → Vosotros (only used in Spain, otherwise use ellos, ellas, or ustedes)
  • They/them → Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes

The perspective or the subject of the verb will change how it's conjugated.

AR, ER, and IR Verbs

In Spanish, it’s easy to tell when a word is a verb because all verbs end in one of these three ways.

  • AR: Caminar, Hablar, Presentar
  • ER: Comer, Ver*, Correr, Conocer*, Saber*
  • IR: Vivir, Escribir, Subir, Describir, Dormir*

* Indicates verb has irregular conjugations

There are different rules for conjugation depending on the last two letters of these verbs. In other words, Spanish verbs ending in AR are conjugated differently than verbs ending in ER and IR.

Irregular Spanish Verbs

For the most part, what you'll learn in this article applies to any verb in the Spanish language. However, some verbs are irregular, meaning they get conjugated differently. They break the rules you're about to learn. It's important to keep this in mind, and you may want to keep a list of irregular verbs and their proper conjugations. A good one can be found on Fluentin3months.

Present Tense Verb Conjugations

The first tense you’ll learn how to conjugate for is the present tense, or el presente. In the present tense, AR verbs are conjugated differently than ER and IR Verbs.

Present Tense Conjugations for AR Verbs

Regular AR verbs are conjugated in the present tense like this:

 


Let’s try some examples


Hablar - to talk

  • Yo hablo
  • Tú hablas
  • Él habla
  • Nosotros hablamos
  • Vosotros habláis
  • Ellas hablan

Caminar - to walk

  • Yo camino
  • Tú caminas
  • Ella camina
  • Nosotros caminamos
  • Vosotros caminais
  • Ellos caminan

Present Tense Conjugations for ER & IR Verbs

In the present tense, verbs ending in ER and IR share the same method of conjugation:



Here are some examples of regular Spanish vergs ending in ER and IR in the present tense.


Comer

  • Yo como
  • Tú comes
  • Él come
  • Nosotros comemos
  • Vosotros comeis
  • Ellos comen

Vivir (“to live”):

  • Yo vivo
  • Tú vives
  • Usted vive
  • Nosotros vivimos
  • Vosotros
  • Ellos viven

Past Tense Verb Conjugations

Conjugating AR Verbs in the Preterite Tense (El Pretérito)

Regular AR verbs are conjugated in Spanish like this:


abaábamos
abasabais
abaaban

Here’s an example:


Tomar - to take, to drink

  • Yo tomaba
  • Tú tomabas
  • Él tomaba
  • Nosotros tomábamos
  • Vosotros tomabais
  • Ellos tomaban

Imperfect ER/IR Verb Conjugations (Imperfecto)

Regular verbs ending in ER and IR are conjugated into the imperfect tense like this:



Here’s an example of an ER verb conjugated into the imperfect tense:


Escribir - to write

  • Yo escribía
  • Tú escribías
  • Él escribía
  • Nosotros escribíamos
  • Vosotros escribíais
  • Ellos escribían

Conjugating Verbs in the Preterite Tense (El Pretérito)

Conjugating AR Verbs in the Preterite Tense

Regular AR verbs are conjugated in spanish like this:

éamos*
asteasteis
óaron

* Note that the first person plural (we) conjugation is the same in preterite tense as present tense.

Here’s some examples of regular AR verbs translated into the preterite tense:


Hablar - to talk

  • Yo hablé
  • Tú hablaste
  • Él habló
  • Nosotros hablamos
  • Vosotros hablasteis
  • Ellas hablaron

Caminar - to walk

  • Yo caminé
  • Tú caminaste
  • Usted caminó
  • Nosotros caminamos
  • Vosotros caminasteis
  • Ellos caminaron

Conjugating ER/IR Verbs in the Preterite Tense

Regular Spanish verbs that end with ER or IR are conjugated into the preterite tense as follows:


íimos
isteisteis
ieron

Let’s try conjugating an ER/IR verb into the preterite tense.


Escribir (“to write”):

  • Yo escribí
  • Tú escribiste
  • Ella escribió
  • Nosotros escribimos
  • Vosotros escribisteis
  • Ellas escribieron

Future Tense Spanish Verb Conjugations

Unlike the other tenses we’ve learned about thus far, constructing a conjugation in the future tense doesn’t require you to discern between AR, ER, and IR verbs. All regular verbs are conjugated the same way in the future tense. Here’s how:



Instead of cutting off the last two letters like we’ve done on other conjugations, the future tense just adds characters onto the end of the verb.

Here’s an example:


Tomar (“to take” or “to drink”):

  • Yo tomaré
  • Tú tomarás
  • Ella tomará
  • Nosotros tomaremos
  • Vosotros tomareis
  • Ellos tomarán

For more instruction on using the future tense, go through this lesson by StudySpanish


Conclusion

One of the most important things to keep in mind while you’re learning Spanish is that not all verbs follow the rules outlined in this post. Many verbs you’ll come across are irregular.


Some of the other ways you might see verbs conjugated in Spanish are:

  1. Yo estaba caminando cuando…
  2. He vivido aquí por 3 años

The translations of these phrases are as follows:

  1. I was walking when …
  2. I have lived here for 3 years

These conjugations represent additional verb tenses, which you’ll learn more about as you progress as a student of Spanish.


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Happy conjugating!

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Sours: https://vidalingua.com/blog/spanish-verb-conjugation-tenses
Spanish Past Tense: Regular, Preterite AR Conjugation

Preterite

The Spanish preterite tense (elpretéritoo el pretérito perfectosimple) is used to describe actions completed at a point in the past.

The Spanish preterite is not used to describe habitual or continuous actions in the past with no specific beginning or end. In such cases, the imperfect tense is used.

Regular Spanish Preterite Forms

There are only two sets of endings for regular preterite verbs, one for -ar verbs and one for both -er and -ir verbs. To conjugate a regular verb in the preterite tense, simply remove the infinitive ending (-ar, -er, or -ir) and add the preterite ending that matches the subject. Check out the table of regular preterite endings below.

Regular Preterite Verb Endings

yo
-aste-iste
él, ella, usted-ió
nosotros-amos-imos
vosotros-asteis-isteis
ellos, ellas, ustedes-aron-ieron

Keep an Eye on the Accents

Note that the first person singular (yo), third person singular (él, ella), and second person formal singular (usted) preterite forms have tildes(written accents) on the final vowel. Keep in mind that one little tilde can change both the tense and subject of a sentence. For example:

With a tilde:

Mandóuna carta.

He/She sent a letter.

examples

Without a tilde:

Mandouna carta.

I send a letter.

examples

Present and Past Nosotros

The first person plural (nosotros) endings for regular -ar and -ir verbs are the same for both the preterite and present tenses. Context clues, such as adverbs like siempre (always) and ayer (yesterday), can help you figure out if a nosotros form refers to the past or the present.

examples

Siemprecocinamospaella los domingos.

We always cook paella on Sundays.

Ayercocinamospaella para mi familia.

Yesterday we cooked paella for my family.

Irregular Spanish Preterite Forms

Four of the most common verbs with irregular preterite forms are ser, ir, dar, and ver. For more on tricky preterite forms, check out our article here.

Irregular Preterite Verb Conjugations

yo
él, ella, usted
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, ustedes

Seeing Double

Note that ser and ir have the exact same forms in the preterite.

Uses of the Preterite

The preterite is used to talk about completed actions in the past. More specifically, it is used to talk about beginnings and ends, things that took place on specific days or dates, at specific times or during specific time periods, and events in a sequence.

1. Completed Events

The preterite is used to talk about completed events, especially those with very clear beginnings and ends.

examples

Compréun coche nuevo.

I bought a new car.

Ben y Cristinase casaron.

Ben and Cristina got married.

Robertonacióen Costa Rica.

Roberto was born in Costa Rica.

2. Beginnings and Ends

Beginnings and ends themselves are also talked about using the preterite. Key verbs you'll see used to talk about beginnings and ends in the past are empezar (to begin), comenzar (to begin), terminar (to finish), and acabar (to end).

examples

Empezóa nevar.

It began to snow.

La películaterminócon una sorpresa.

The movie ended with a surprise.

3. Specific Times and Dates

The preterite is used to talk about past events or actions that occurred on specific days or dates, at specific times, and during specific time periods.

examples

Regreséanoche a las diez.

I got back last night at ten.

Vivióen Perú por tres meses.

He lived in Peru for three months.

Leísteeste libro el mes pasado.

You read this book last month.

Nachonacióel tres de agosto.

Nacho was born on August third.

4. Events in a Sequence

The preterite is used for listing past events that took place in a sequence.

examples

Me levanté, me vestí,ysalípara la fiesta.

I got up, got dressed, and left for the party.

Túentraste, bebisteun vaso de agua ycomisteuna hamburguesa.

You came in, drank a glass of water, and ate a hamburger.

Looking for information on the differences between the preterite and the imperfect? Check out this article!

Sours: https://www.spanishdict.com/guide/spanish-preterite-tense-forms

Conjugation spanish past tense

A Step-By-Step Conjugation of Simple Past-Tense Verbs in Spanish

As one of Spanish's two simple past tenses, the preterite (often spelled as "preterit") has a conjugation that is essential to learn. It is the verb form used most often to tell of events that have already happened and that are seen as completed.

The other simple past tense, the imperfect, is used for past actions that aren't necessarily completed, meaning the past action did not have a stated end (or, sometimes, beginning).

How to Conjugate the Preterite Tense

The concept of verb conjugation for Spanish is similar to that of English, but it is much more complex. In English, the preterite for regular verbs is formed by adding "-ed" to the verb unless its final letter is "e," when only a "-d" is added. In Spanish, however there are six endings depending on whether the noun performing the action is singular or plural and is in the first, second, or third person.

As is the case with standard Spanish conjugation rules, the preterite verb forms are made by removing the two-letter ending of the verb, such as -ar, -er, or -ir, and replacing it with an ending that indicates who is performing the action of the verb. Verbs agree in person and number with the noun performing their action.

For example, the infinitive or base form of the verb that means "to speak" is hablar. Its infinitive ending is -ar, and the verb stem is habl-.

To say "I spoke," remove the -ar, add to the stem, forming hablé. Yo hablé is "I spoke." To say "you spoke," singular "you" in an informal way, remove the -ar, add -aste to the stem, forming hablaste: Tu hablaste is "You spoke." Other forms exist for other personal pronouns.

The endings are slightly different for verbs that end in -er and -ir, but the principle is the same. Remove the infinitive ending, then add the appropriate ending to the remaining stem.

Conjugation of Regular -AR Verbs in the Preterite Tense

Person-Ar EndingInfinitive: HablarTranslation: To Speak
yohabléI spoke
-astehablasteyou (informal) spoke
él, ella, ustedhablóhe/she spoke, you (formal) spoke
nosotros, nosotras-amoshablamoswe spoke
vosotros, vosotras-asteishablasteisyou spoke (informal)
ellos, ellas, ustedes-aronhablaronthey spoke, you (formal) spoke

Conjugation of Regular -ER Verbs in the Preterite Tense

Person-Er EndingInfinitive: AprenderTranslation: To Learn
yoaprendíI learned
-isteaprendisteyou (informal) learned
él, ella, usted-ióaprendióhe/she learned, you (formal) learned
nosotros, nosotras-imosaprendimoswe learned
vosotros, vosotras-isteisaprendisteisyou learned (informal)
ellos, ellas, ustedes-ieronaprendieronthey learned, you (formal) learned

Conjugation of Regular -IR Verbs in the Preterite Tense

Person-Ir EndingInfinitive: EscribirTranslation: To Write
yoescribíI wrote
-isteescribisteyou (informal) wrote
él, ella, usted-ióescribióhe/she wrote, you (formal) wrote
nosotros, nosotras-imosescribimoswe wrote
vosotros, vosotras-isteisescribisteisyou wrote (informal)
ellos, ellas, ustedes-ieronescribieronthey wrote, you (formal) wrote

You may note that in the preterite tense, regular -er and -ir verbs use the same pattern of endings.

Additionally, the first-person plural, the "we" form of nosotros and nosotras, has the same conjugation for both the present indicative tense and the preterite past tense for -ar and -ir verbs. The word hablamos can mean either "we speak" or "we spoke," and escribimos can mean either "we write" or "we wrote." In most cases, the context of the sentence makes clear which tense is intended. This conjugational ambiguity doesn't exist for for -er verbs.

Conjugations of Common Irregular Verbs

Below are the preterite-tense for the irregular verbs you are most likely to use. Irregular forms are shown in boldface; the forms given follow the same order as in the charts above, beginning with the first-person singular and continuing to the third-person plural as in the charts above.

dar (to give): di, diste, dio, dimos, disteis, dieron.

decir (to say, to tell): dije, dijiste, dijo, dijimos, dijisteis, dijeron.

estar (to be): estuve, estuviste, estuvo, estuvimos, estuvisteis, estuvieron.

haber (to have as an auxiliary verb): hube, hubiste, hubo, hubimos, hubisteis, hubieron.

hacer (to make, to do): hice, hiciste, hizo, hizimos, hicisteis, hicieron.

ir (to go): fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron. (Note that the preterite conjugations of ir and ser are identical.)

llegar (to arrive): llegué, llegaste, llegó, llegamos, llegasteis, llegaron.

poder (to be able, can): pude, pudiste, pudo, pudimos, pudisteis, pudieron.

poner (to put): puse, pusiste, puso, pusimos, pusisteis, pusieron.

querer (to be): quise, quisiste, quiso, quisimos, quisisteis, quisieron.

saber (to know): supe, supiste, supo, supimos, supisteis, supieron.

ser (to be): fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron.

tener (to have or possess): tuve, tuviste, tuvo, tuvimos, tuvisteis, tuvieron.

ver (to see): vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron.

Key Takeaways

  • The preterite is one of the two simple past tenses in Spanish and is used for verbs indicating an end to their action.
  • The preterite conjugation is identical for -er and -ir verbs.
  • Irregular preterite conjugations can be substantially different than the regular forms.

Watch Now: Learn Spanish: How to Conjugate Seguir in Preterite Tense

Sours: https://www.thoughtco.com/conjugation-of-regular-preterite-verbs-3079161
Past Tense - Basic Spanish Verb Conjugation

After all, who takes on a responsible business without elastic boobs at hand. Therefore, for a couple of seconds I have been sitting huddled in a corner between the boulders and wiping away my. Bitter tears.

Now discussing:

I slowly got up and walked over to the teacher. Did not expect. Mmmm. answered the Englishwoman. And this is because of your disgusting behavior.



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