German words starting with d

German words starting with d DEFAULT

The Big List of 250 Useful German Adjectives (with FREE PDF!)

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Adjectives… Wonderful, useful adjectives. They make language so much more precise and delightful to use--regardless of what language it is!

See how adjectives described adjectives in the previous sentences? They do make sentences more nuanced, don’t you think? Which is why here in this article, we’ll be learning a big chunk of German adjectives---250 to be exact!

And if you download the PDF, you’ll be getting 50 additional German verbs on the list.

Ready for your list of useful German adjectives? Let's go!

English vs. German Adjectives

While German adjectives do the same things English adjectives do (in fact, there are plenty of cognates in German and English adjectives which we’ll talk about briefly later), the main difference is that:

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  • 300 Useful German Adjectives
  • German adjectives need to agree in gender and number of the noun it modifies, and
  • German adjectives would change depending on the case, whether it’s nominative, accusative, dative, and genitive.

But this is an altogether different lesson for another day. Today we will just talk about German adjectives in their original form.

Having said that, let’s jump into your list of the most frequently used German adjectives.

250 Useful German Adjectives

aalglattslippery
abenteuerlichadventurous
abhängigdependent
aggressivaggressive
ähnlichsimilar
ahnungslosclueless
aktivactive
alleinalone
altold
anpassungsfähigadaptable
anständigdecent
ärgerlichannoying
armpoor
artkind
attraktivattractive
aufgeklärtenlightened
aufgeregtexcited, upset, nervous
aufgeschlossenopen-minded
aufrichtigsincere, genuine, candid
blasspale
begabtgifted, talented
begeistertexcited, enthusiastic, thrilled
berühmtfamous
beliebt, populärpopular
bestimmtspecial, certain
besserbetter
bequemcomfortable
bescheidenmodest, humble
bestebest
bezauberndenchanting, fascinating
billigcheap, inexpensive
blödstupid, ignorant
blondineblond
boshaftmalicious, mean
bravwell-behaved, good
charmantcharming
dankbargrateful, thankful
dickthick
direktdirect, straight
doof, dummstupid, dumb
dunkeldark
dünnthin
ehrgeizigambitious
ehrlichhonest
eifersüchtigjealous
einfachsimple, plain, easy
eingebildetconceited, vain
einmaligunique
einsamlonely
ekelhaftnasty, detestable
ekligdisgusting, gross
empfindlichsensitive
engnarrow, close
engagiertdedicated, committed
engstirnignarrow-minded
entscheidenddecisive
entspannendlaidback
erfolgreichsuccessful
ernstserious
erstefirst
erstklassigfirst-class, high-quality, topnotch
falschwrong, false
fantastischfantastic
faszinierendfascinating
faullazy
feigcowardly
feinfine
festsolid, strong, firm
fettfat
feiglingcoward
fleißigdiligent, hard-working, industrious
fortgeschrittenadvanced
frechnaughty, cheeky, sassy
freifree
fremdforeign, strange
freundlichfriendly, kind
frohhappy
fröhlichcheerful
frommpious
frühearly
ganzwhole
gastfreundlichhospitable
gebildeteducated, cultured
geduldigpatient
gefährlichdangerous
gefühlvollsensitive, emotional
geistreichwitty, brilliant
geizigstingy, cheap
gemeinlow, rude, vulgar
gemeinsamcommon, mutual
gemütlichpleasant, cozy
genialingenious, brilliant
gerechtjust, righteous
geschätztdear, valued
gescheitclever, bright
geschicktskillful
geschwätzigtalkative, chatty
geselligsociable, friendly
gesundhealthy
gieriggreedy
glaubwürdigcredible, believable
gleichsame, right away, just
gleichzeitigsimultaneous
glücklichhappy, lucky, blessed
grausamcruel
grobcoarse, uncouth, rude
großzügiggenerous
großbig, large, tall
grüngreen
gutgood, well
gut angezogenwell-dressed
gut gelauntcheerful, in a good mood
halbhalf
halsstarrigstubborn
harthard, tough
hartnäckighard-headed, stubborn
hässlichugly
häufigfrequent
heißhot
heitercheerful
hellbright, vivid
hemmungslosuninhibited, unrestrained
herrlichwonderful, magnificent, marvelous
herzlosheartless, unfeeling
hilfreichhelpful
hinterlistigdeceitful, treacherous
hochhigh
hochmütighaughty, proud
hochnäsigsnooty, stuck up
höflichpolite
hübschpretty, handsome
hundemüdedog-tired
hungrighungry
idealistischidealistic
intelligentintelligent
interessantinteresting
intolerantintolerant
jungyoung
kaltcold, unfriendly
kindischchildish
kindlichchildlike
klarclear
klasse, toll, supergreat, super
kleinsmall, little, short
kleinlichpetty, nit-picky
klugsmart, clever
komischfunny, comical, odd
kompliziertcomplicated
konservativconservative
kontaktfreudigsociable, outgoing
kräftigstrong
kranksick
kreativcreative
kritischcritical
krummcrooked, hunched, bent
labilunstable, frail
langlong
langsamslow
langweiligboring
launischmoody, temperamental
lautloud, rowdy
lebendigalive, lively
leichtlight, easy
leidenschaftlichpassionate
leisequiet, soft
letztelast
liebdear, beloved
liebenswürdiglovable, amiable
lustigfunny
merkwürdigunusual, strange
misstrauischmistrustful, distrustful
modischfashionable, stylish
molligplump, chubby
möglichpossible
moralischmoral, ethical
mutigbrave
nächstenext
nachlässigcareless, negligent
nahnear
naßwet
neidischenvious
nervösnervous
nettkind, nice (person)
neunew
neugierigcurious
niedergeschlagendepressed, dejected
niedlichcute
niedriglow
notwendignecessary
oberflächlichsuperficial, shallow
offenopen
öffentlichpublic
optimistischoptimistic
ordentlichorderly
passivpassive
parteiischpartial, biased, one-sided
peinlichembarrassing
pessimistischpessimistic
praktischpractical
privatprivate
pünktlichpunctual, prompt
radikalradical, revolutionary
raffiniertrefined, elegant
rauhrough
rebellischrebellious
rechthaberischself-opinionated
redlichhonest
reichrich
reifmature
reinpure, clean, clear
religiösreligious
richtigcorrect, proper
riesighuge
romantischromantic
rotred
rücksichtslosruthless, inconsiderate
rücksichtsvollconsiderate
ruhigcalm
sauberclean
sauerangry, sour
schickchic, stylish, fancy
schlampigmessy, sloppy
schlauclever, cunning
schlecht, schlimmbad, awful
schmutzigdirty, filthy, soiled
schnellfast, quick
schönbeautiful, pretty, nice
schüchternshy
schwachweak, frail
schwarzblack
schwer, schwierigdifficult, heavy
schwerfälligcumbersome, heavy, sluggish
schwermütiggloomy, melancholic
selbstlosunselfish
selbstsicherself-confident
selbstsüchtigselfish
seltenrare
seltsamstrange, weird
sensationellsensational
sensibelsensitive
sichersafe, secure, certainly
sorgenlos, sorgenfreicarefree
sorgfältigcareful
spätlate
spontanspontaneous
sportlichathletic
spöttischmocking, scornful
ständigconstant
starkstrong, powerful
stolz (auf)proud (of)

If you want to download a longer list of 300 German adjectives, download your copy of the PDF below.

German Cognate Adjectives

There are lots of German adjectives that you could recognize easily if you’re an English speaker. These are some of them:

  • Some adjectives that end in -al are the same in English and German:  normal, original, rational, ideal, diagonal
  • Some English adjectives that end in -al are changed to an -ell ending in German: sensationnel, generell, individuell
  • Some adjectives that end in -ent and -ant are the same in English and German: elegant, tolerant, excellent, intelligent
  • Some English adjectives that end in -ic or -ical are changed to -isch in German: analytisch, egoistisch, musikalisch
  • In cognate adjectives, the letter c in English is replaced with k: aktiv, kreativ, kompetent

This cognate list should already add several German adjectives in your vocabulary!

Conclusion

Adjectives are an important part of any language such as German. I hope this list of 250 (or 300 of you downloaded the PDF) will help broaden your German vocabulary.

To learn new German words painlessly, check out our e-book German Short Stories with Audio.

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Sours: https://mydailygerman.com/german-adjectives/

German Genealogical Word List

Introduction[edit | edit source]

This list contains German words with their English translations. On most computers, CTL+F will search this page for the word you wish to translate. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a German-English dictionary, the online Grimm Deutsches Wörterbuch (one of the best sources), or other regional online dictionaries found at woerterbuchnetz.de.Latin words are often found in German records, and a few are included in this list. See the Latin Word List (34077).

German is spoken in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Records written in German may be found in these countries and also in parts of Poland, Denmark, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Hungary, and wherever German people settled. There are several different dialects in the German language. For example, in the province of Westfalen and other areas of Germany that border the Netherlands, you may notice words that are closely related to Dutch words. You may find the Dutch word list useful when working with these records.

In addition, German is found in some early records of the United States, such as in Pennsylvania, Texas, Wisconsin, and other states where Germans lived.

Language Characteristics[edit | edit source]

German words for persons, places, and things (nouns) are always capitalized. All nouns are classified as masculine, feminine, or neuter. This classification is called gender. The gender of a noun is indicated by der (masculine), die (feminine), and das (neuter), which translates as "the." Word endings may vary, depending on the way the words are used in the sentence.

Variant Forms of Words[edit | edit source]

In German, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in the sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries— married are examples of words in English with variant forms. In German, the form of many words can change greatly. This word list gives the standard form of each German word. As you read German records, you will need to be aware that some words vary with usage.

The endings of words in a document may differ from those on this list. For example, the document may use the word junger, but you will find it in this word list as jung. In addition, the suffixes -chen and -lein are often added to words to indicate "little." Therefore, the word Söhnchen means "little or young son," and Töchterlein means "little or young daughter."

Adjectives describe nouns and must have the proper masculine, feminine, or neuter endings. For example, in German you would say "junger Mann" (young man) or "junges Mädchen" (young maiden) if man and maiden are the subjects of a sentence. Adjective endings can change depending on usage and gender.

Plural words are usually formed by adding -er, -en, or -e. Thus the word Kind becomes Kinder, Frau becomes Frauen, and Aufgebot becomes Aufgebote. Plurality may also change the vowel slightly. For example, Mann becomes Männer.

In German, many words are formed by joining two or more words. Very few of these compound words are included in this list. You will need to look up each part of the word separately. For example, Geburtstag is a combination of two words, Geburt (birth) and Tag (day).

Dialects[edit | edit source]

Germany has a range of different dialects. These can be grouped into two main groups, Low German spoken in the northern lowlands of Germany, and High German spoken in the more mountainous south. Traditional dialects form a continuum as opposed to sharp charges, with dialects slowing becoming more "Low German" as one moves towards the north-east. Dutch dialects can be viewed as a continuation of this continuum.

High German has become the most "standard" dialect of German. See these wiki articles for specific information on Low German: Low German Language in German Research, The Dialect Basis of Spelling Variation in German Surnames, Spelling Variants in the Northern Rheinland.

Diacritic Marks[edit | edit source]

German uses diacritics over several letters, i.e. Ä (ä), Ö (ö), Ü (ü). These diacritics are not optional in German because the pronunciation and meaning of a word will be changed depending on whether the diacritic is added or omitted. There is another symbol that will be found in German, namely ß. It has the value of <ss>. Historically, German also included Ÿ (ÿ) which today has been replaced with the letters I (i) and Ü (ü).

For data entry and some searches, it is useful to know how to create these characters. Note: Do not use diacritics when searching in the FamilySearch Catalog.

From a PC keyboard, these letters may be created by using the following keystroke combinations. Make sure the number lock is on.

LetterCodeLetterCode
Ä Alt + 142 ä Alt + 132
Ö Alt + 153 ö Alt + 148
Ü Alt + 154 ü Alt + 129
ß Alt + 225
Ÿ Alt + 376 ÿ Alt + 152

On a Linux system it is possible to use a control combination with the Unicode code for the characters. Using the left Ctrl and Shift keys and the U key at the same time, then type the code and hit Enter. For example, left Ctrl-Shift-U then c then 4 then enter will produce Ä, Ctrl-Shift-U then dc is Ü, and so on. For a complete list of codes, reference https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Unicode_characters.

Alphabetical Order[edit | edit source]

German letters with diacritic marks will be alphabetized in this publication as though they were a, o, u, and ss. However, many dictionaries and gazetteers will alphabetize these characters as if they were ae, oe, ue, and ss.

Spelling[edit | edit source]

Because spelling rules were not standardized in earlier centuries, spelling variations are common. Local dialect often affects the spelling in genealogical records. In German records, the following letters are sometimes used interchangeably:

  • p used for b
  • a used for e
  • t used for d or dt
  • s used for z
  • ck used for k
  • y used for i or j
  • v used for w or f
  • k used for g
  • tz used for z
  • ig used for isch or ich
  • t used for th
  • u used for i

Examples:

  • Freytag for Freitag
  • Burckhart for Burkhard
  • Waldpurga for Waldburga
  • undt for und

Transcription[edit | edit source]

In transcriptions of German handwriting some errors are prevalent:

  • n transcribed u or w
  • r transcribed s
  • Z transcribed F, G, J, or L
  • z transcribed g or y

Transliteration[edit | edit source]

Within a given language transliteration is seen especially in personal names, a result of migration and geographically near other languages. The German letters s and z are notably affected.

  • German s = Hungarian sz
  • German sh = Hungarian s
  • German z = Hungarian cz = Dutch s

Additional Resources[edit | edit source]

This word list includes only words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For further help, use a German-English dictionary. Several German-English dictionaries are available in the Family History Library. These are in the European collection. The call numbers begin with 433.21.

Particularly helpful dictionaries include:

  • Langenscheidt New Muret-Sanders Encyclopedic Dictionary of the English and German Languages. Berlin, Germany: Langenscheidt, 1969, 1974 (FHL book 433.21 Sp83n).
  • The New Cassell’s German Dictionary, German-English, English-German. New York, NY, USA: Funk and Wagnalls, Inc., 1971 (FHL book 433.211 C272 1971).
  • Rudy's List of Archaic Medical Terms. German and Latin terms are included at this website.
  • Das Deutsche Wörterbuch / Deutsches Wörterbuch (DWB, The "German Dictionary" / "German Dictionary") is one of the most important dictionaries of the German language. Written entirely in German, the dictionary contains 32 volumes and includes about 350,000 main entries. It is particularly useful for finding the meaning of words in genealogical documents that are no longer used in modern German. See the online version by clicking here.

Additional dictionaries are listed in the subject section of the FamilySearch Catalog under GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the locality section under GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES.

Key Words[edit | edit source]

To find and use specific types of German records, you will need to know some key words in German. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the German words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage. In the second column you will find German words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, joined, and other words used in German records to indicate marriage.

EnglishGerman
birth Geburten, Geburtsregister, Geborene, geboren
burial Beerdigungen, begraben, Begräbnisse, bestattet, beerdigt
Catholic katholisch
census Volkszählung
child Kind, Kinder
christening Taufe, Taufen, Getaufte
confirmations Konfirmationen, Firmungen
civil registry Standesamt
death Tote, Tod, sterben, starb, verstorben, gestorben, Sterbefall
father Vater
husband Mann, Ehemann, Gatte
index Verzeichnis, Register
Jewish jüdisch, Jude(n), israelitisch
marriage banns Proklamationen, Aufgebote, Verkündigungen
marriage Heiraten, Trauungen, Getraute, Ehe, Kopulation, kopulieren, verheiratet, Verehelichungen, Eheschliessungen
month Monat
mother Mutter
name, given Vorname, Name
name, surname Zuname, Familienname, Geschlechtsname, Name
parents Eltern
parish Pfarrei, Kirchspiel, Gemeinde
Protestant evangelisch, lutherisch, Protestant
Reformed reformiert
wife Frau, Ehefrau, Hausfrau, Weib, Eheweib, Gattin, Ehegattin
year Jahr

Dates/Time[edit | edit source]

In German records, dates are often written out. For example:

Freitag den vierzehnten Februar achtzehnhundert sechs und dreißig [Friday, the 14th of February, eighteen hundred six and thirty (1836)].

To understand German dates, use the following lists as well as the “Numbers” section on this wiki page.

Months[edit | edit source]

EnglishGerman
January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner
February Februar, Hornung
March März, Frühlingsmonat
April April, Ostermonat, Osteren
May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat
June Juni, Brachmonat
July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet
August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat
September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris
October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris
November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris
December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris

A more extensive list of month names in German.

Days of the Week[edit | edit source]

EnglishGerman
Sunday Sonntag
Monday Montag
Tuesday Dienstag
Wednesday Mittwoch
Thursday Donnerstag
Friday Freitag, Freytag
Saturday Samstag, Sonnabend

See also:

Times of the Day[edit | edit source]

German birth and death records often indicated the exact time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.

GermanEnglish
ein Uhr one (o’clock)
zwei Uhr two (o’clock)
drei Uhr three (o’clock)
halb eins half one = 12:30
halb zwei half two = 1:30
halbe Stunde half hour
Stunde hour
früh early (a.m.)
spät late (p.m.)
morgens in the morning
vormittags in the forenoon
mittags at noon
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
mitternachts at midnight

Symbols[edit | edit source]

Sometimes a symbol is used in German genealogical sources rather than abbreviations. Some of these are shown at GenWiki, Genealogical Symbols and Signs.

Occupations[edit | edit source]

  • Berufe und Sozialstatus der Vorfahren In German.
    An excellent analysis of historical German occupations and social status.
    Hint: Use a web-based translator or translator/browser like Chrome to see this in passable English.

Medical Terminology[edit | edit source]

Numbers[edit | edit source]

NumberCardinal (English)Cardinal (German)Ordinal (German)
1 one eins erste
2 two zwei
zweÿ
zweite
3 three drei
dreÿ
dritte
4 four vier vierte
5 five fünf fünfte
6 six sechs sechste
7 seven sieben siebte
8 eight acht achte
9 nine neun neunte
10 ten zehn zehnte
11 eleven elf
eilf
elfte
eilfte
12 twelve zwölf zwölfte
13 thirteen dreizehn dreizehnte
14 fourteen vierzehn vierzehnte
15 fifteen fünfzehn fünfzehnte
16 sixteen sechzehn sechzehnte
17 seventeen siebzehn siebzehnte
18 eighteen achtzehn achtzehnte
19 nineteen neunzehn neunzehnte
20 twenty zwanzig zwanzigste
21 twenty-one einundzwanzig einundzwanzigste
22 twenty-two zweiundzwanzig zweiundzwanzigste
23 twenty-three dreiundzwanzig dreiundzwanzigste
24 twenty-four vierundzwanzig vierundzwanzigste
25 twenty-five fünfundzwanzig fünfundzwanzigste
26 twenty-six sechsundzwanzig sechsundzwanzigste
27 twenty-seven siebenundzwanzig siebenundzwanzigste
28 twenty-eight achtundzwanzig achtundzwanzigste
29 twenty-nine neunundzwanzig neunundzwanzigste
30 thirty dreißig dreißigste
31 thirty-one einunddreißig einunddreißigste
40 forty vierzig vierzigste
50 fifty fünfzig fünfzigste
60 sixty sechzig sechzigste
70 seventy siebzig siebzigste
80 eighty achtzig achtzigste
90 ninety neunzig neunzigste
100 one hundred (ein)hundert (ein)hundertste
101 one hundred (and) one (ein)hunderteins (ein)hunderterste
102 one hundred (and) two (ein)hundertzwei (ein)hundertzweite
120 one hundred (and) twenty (ein)hundertzwanzig (ein)hundertzwanzigste
121 one hundred (and) twenty-one (ein)hunderteinundzwanzig (ein)hunderteinundzwanzigste
122 one hundred (and) twenty-two (ein)hundertzweiundzwanzig (ein)hundertzweiundzwanzigste
200 two hundred zweihundert zweihundertste
300 three hundred dreihundert dreihundertste
1.000 one thousand (ein)tausend (ein)tausendste
1.001 one thousand (and) one (ein)tausendeins (ein)tausenderste
1.002 one thousand (and) two (ein)tausendzwei (ein)tausendzweite
1.050 one thousand (and) fifty (ein)tausendfünfzig (ein)tausendfünfzigste
1.100 one thousand (and) one hundred
eleven hundred
(ein)tausendeinhundert (ein)tausendeinhundertste
1.500
1500
one thousand (and) five hundred
fifteen hundred
(ein)tausendfünfhundert
fünfzehnhundert
Fünfzehnjahrhundert (1400s century)
(ein)tausendfünfhundertste
fünfzehnhundertste
1.600
1600
one thousand (and) six hundred
sixteen hundred
(ein)tausendsechshundert
sechzehnhundert
Sechzehnjahrhundert (1500s century)
(ein)tausendsechshundertste
sechzehnhundertste
1.700
1700
one thousand (and) seven hundred
seventeen hundred
(ein)tausendsiebenhundert
siebzehnhundert
Siebzehnjahrhundert (1600s century)
(ein)tausendsiebenhundertste
siebzehnhundertste
1.800
1800
one thousand (and) eight hundred
eighteen hundred
(ein)tausendachthundert
achtzehnhundert
Achtzehnjahrhundert (1700s century)
(ein)tausendachthundertste
achtzehnhundertste
1.865
1865
one thousand, eight hundred, (and) sixty-five
eighteen sixty-five
(ein)tausendachthundertfünfundsechzig
achtzehnhundertfünfundsechzig
actzehnhundert sechzig fünf (rarely in old documents)
(ein)tausendachthundertfünfundsechzigste
achtzehnhundertfünfundsechzigste
1.900
1900
one thousand (and) nine hundred
nineteen hundred
(ein)tausendneunhundert
neunzehnhundert
Neunzehnjahrhundert (1800s century)
(ein)tausendneunhundertste
neunzehnhundertste
2.000
2000
two thousand zweitausend
zwanzighundert
Zwanzigjahrhundert (1900s century)
zweitausendste
zwanzighundertste
10.000 ten thousand zehntausend zehntausendste
100.000 one hundred thousand hunderttausend hunderttausendste
1.000.000 one million eine Million millionste
1.000.000.000 one billion eine Millarde milliardste

Types of Farmers[edit | edit source]

There are many different words meaning "farmer" in German. Most of these words explain what type of farmer a person is.

GermanEnglish
Abbauer farmer on a section split off from the original farm, perhaps a later-born son
Abnahmemann retired farmer living on a life estate
Abschiedsmann retired farmer living on a life estate
Achtelbauer farmer with 1/8 farm
Achtelhüfner farmer with 1/8 farm
Achtermann farmer on a farm behind one's own
Ackerbauer farmer
Ackerbürger farmer
Ackerer farmer
Ackerknecht farmhand
Ackersmann farmer
Ackerwirt, Ackerwirth farmer
Altbauer old, established farmer, possibly retired
Altenteiler retired farmer
Altenteilerin retired farmer's wife
Althufner, Althüfner retired farmer
Altsitzer(in) retired farmer
Amtsmeier farmer with a large estate and special rights
Anbauer small farmer
Anspänner farmer who owns draft animals (horses, oxen) and a wagon
Aröder new settler on farmland belonging to an estate
Artmann farmer
Artmeier farmer
Auenhäusler cottager, free villager with a small house, garden, and some livestock
Ausdinger retired farmer
Auszügler retired farmer
Bäuerle, Bauerli farmer (Swiss)
Bauer peasant, farmer on a full-sized farm
Bauernknecht farmhand
Bauknecht farmhand
Baumann farmer, can also be a builder
Beerbter farmer with an inheritable lease
Behandinge feudal tenure on a farm
Beibauer farmer on a new farm, officially recognized, but with few privileges
Beisasse landless renter without citizen rights in the community
Beiwohner rental inhabitant without citizenship
Beständer farmer on a small farm
Bestanderlasser landlord over a small farm
Bestandwirt farmer leasing farm land
Bödener cottager, free villager with a small house, garden, and some livestock
Bolsmann, Bohlsmann farmer with a full-sized farm
Brinker cottager, see Brinksitzer
Brinkkötter cottager, see Brinksitzer
Brinklieger cottager, see Brinksitzer
Brinkmann cottager, see Brinksitzer
Brinksitzer cottager, his property situated on a grassy hill (Brink) on the outskirts
Büdner cottager, small-scale farmer, could also have a small shop
Buhmann, Bumann farmer
Buschpächter tenant farmer who clears the land, then farms it (Eastern Pomerania)
Chalupner, Challupner small-scale farmer [often used in Czech records]
Dotale, Dotalbauer farmer who leases church-income property
Eigengärtner cottager with a garden of his own
Eigenkäthner cottager with a garden of his own
Eigenkötter cottager with a garden of his own
Einlieger free agricultural laborer
Einspänner farmer with one horse
Erbbauer farmer on a full-sized farm with inherited lease rights
Erbpächter farmer with a hereditary land lease
Exner poorer framer who used oxen
Feuerstättler cottager (whose dwelling has a fireplace)
Freibauer free farmer with only small rent payments
Freigärtner free farmer
Fröhner subject performing unpaid labor for the lord of the land (as part of the taxation system)
Gärtner farmer
Ganzlechner, Ganzlehner farmer who leases a standard-sized farm
Gesinde male or female hired help on a farm
Häker, Häcker small farmer (lower-class subject) who must perform unpaid labor for the landlord as part of his obligations
Halblechner, Halblehner farmer who leases half of a standard-sized farm
Heuerling day laborer
Hofer farmer
Hofgänger farmhand
Hofmann farmer
Hofstädtler farmer
Hofwirth farmer
Hoppenplöcker farmer who is obligated to do “hand service” (in Lippe)
Hortulanus farmer (Latin)
Huber farmer
Hübler farmer; expression comes from “Hube”
Hüttler, Hitler cottager
Inlieger tenant farmer
Inste, Instmann tenant farmer
Interimswirt, Interimswirth farmer who marries into a farm by marrying the widow or heiress
Kätner, Käthner, Köthner cottager with a small house and a garden of his own, perhaps some livestock
Kampheuerling tenant of a farm belonging to nobility
Kirchdotale farmer who leases church-income property
Kitzmann rents from a farmer
Knecht farmhand
Kölmer farmer who is "half free"
Köter, Kötter cottager
Kolon farmer on a farm with hereditary tithe
Kolonist new settler in the area; most, but not all, were farmers
Kolupner cottager; see Chal(l)upner
Kossate, Kossäth cottager
Kotsass, Kotasse cottager
Landmann farmer
Lehner farmer who leases a farm
Magd female helper on a farm
Meyer farmer, farm overseer, manager
Ochsner poorer farmer who used oxen
Ökonom farmer
Pachtbauer farmer who leases his land (often an inheritable lease)
Päger farmer who ploughs with horses
Pfarrdotale farmer who leases church-income property
Robotgärtner unfree farmer/farm laborer
Rössner farmer who ploughed with horses
Scharknecht farmhand
Söldner farmer who farmed on a small section of land called a “Sölde”
Strassenkötter cottager living by a road
Tagelöhner day laborer
Tagner day laborer
Tauner, Thauner day laborer
Viertelbauer farmer on 1/4 farm
Viertelhufner, Viertelhüfner farmer on 1/4 farm
Viertellehner farmer who leases a quarter of a standard-sized farm
Vollbauer farmer on a full-sized farm
Voll-lehner, Volllehner farmer who leases a full farm
Vollmaier farmer on a full-sized farm
Vollspänner farmer on a full-sized farm
Weingärtner wine grower
Weingartknecht farmhand in a vineyard
Weinzettel farmhand in a vineyard
Widumer farmer settled on church property
Winzer wine grower
Wirt, Wirth farmer
Zettelmann farmhand
Zweispänner farmer who owns two draft animals

General Word List[edit | edit source]

Note: In German, letters with diacritical marks are alphabetized as if they did not have a diacritical mark. In some other languages, they are alphabetized separately.

A[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
A. = Amt, Amtsbezirk government office, official district
Ab., Abe. = Abbaue(e), Ausbau(e) surface mine(s)
Abt. = Abteilung department
a/d = an der, auf der on the, by the (followed by the name of a river or other geographical feature)
A.G. = Amtsgericht lower court, county court
Anh. = Anhalt duchy of Anhalt
ab from, since
Abbauer tenant on a (new, split-off) farm; heir with a small part of a farm (usually a second son)
Abdecker skinner
Abend evening
Abendmahlgast communicant
abends in the evening
Abenteurer jeweler, jewel trader; adventurer
aber but
abgestorben deceased
Ablader longshoreman
Abnahmemann retired farmer on life estate
Abnehmer photographer
Abschiedsmann man retired on life estate
absterben to die, to die off
Abstreifer renderer; flayer
Abzehrung emaciation, wasting
acht eight
achte eighth
Achter juryman
achtundzwanzigste twenty-eighth
achtzehn eighteen
achtzehnhundert eighteen hundred
achtzehnte eighteenth
achtzig eighty
achtzigste eightieth
Ackermann farmer
Adel gentry, nobleman
a.D. = außer Dienst formerly employed, retired
adoptiert adopted
Ahnen ancestors
Ahnentafel pedigree chart
Akten documents
alle all
allhier in this place
alt old
Altbürger full citizen
Alter age
Altersschwäche weakness of old age
ältest eldest
alt-katholisch old Catholic
Amman bailiff, magistrate
Amt office, district
Anbauer peasant
andere other, next
Angeber informant
angeblich alleged, assumed
angeheiratet related by marriage (stepson, stepdaughter)
Anhalt duchy of Anhalt
Anmerkungen remarks
Ansiedler settler
Anspänner farmer
apostolisch Apostolic
April April
Arbeiter laborer, worker
Archiv archive
arm poor
Armut poverty
Arzt physician
auch also, too
auf on, upon, at
aufbieten post banns
Aufenthaltserlaubnis residence permit
Aufenthaltsort residence
Aufgebot publication of banns
Aufnahmebuch book listing debts
Aufnahmeland country to which one immigrated
August August
aus from, out of
außen outside
äußere outside, outward, external
außerehelich illegitimate
Auswanderer emigrant
Auswanderung emigration
Ausweis identification document
Auszehrung consumption or emaciation (especially from TB)
Auszug extract

B[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
B. = Bezirk district or area
BA. = Bezirksamt district office
Bay. = Bayern Bavaria
Bd. = Band volume
Bhf. = Bahnhof railroad station
Bkdo. = Bezirkskommando military district command
bz. = beziehungsweise or, respectively
Bäcker baker
Bad spa, resort
Badeort spa, health resort
Bader physician of the lower classes
Band volume
Baptist Baptist
Baron baron
Bauer farmer, peasant
Bayern Bavaria
Beamter official, registrar
Beck(er) baker
beerdigt buried
Beerdigung burial, interment
beglaubigt certified, attested
begraben buried
Begräbnis burial
Beichte confession
beide both
Beilage supplement
Bekannte(r) acquaintance
Bekehrung conversion
Belege proof, documentation
Bemerkungen remarks
Berg hill, mountain
Bergmann miner
Beruf occupation, profession
Beschreibung description
Besitzer possessor, proprietor, owner
bestätigt confirmed, verified
bestattet buried
bettlägerig bedridden
Bettler beggar
Bevölkerungsregister population register
bevorstehend previously mentioned
Bezirk district
Biographie biography
Bischof bishop
Bistum diocese
Blattern smallpox
blutend bleeding
Blütenmonat May
Blutsverwandschaft blood relationship
Böhmen Bohemia
Bootsmann bargeman, boatman
Böttcher cooper, barrel maker
Brauer brewer
Bräune diphtheria
Braut bride
Bräutigam bridegroom
Brücke bridge
Bruder brother
Bub boy
Buch book
Büdner cottager
Burg castle, fortress
Bürger burgher, citizen, citizens
Bürgerbuch citizen register
Bürgermeister mayor
Bursch, Pursch young man
Büttner barrel maker

C[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
ca. = circa about
Chirug surgeon
Christmonat December
Colonist settler, tenant farmer
Comparent informant
copulieren to marry
Cossate, Cossathe cottager
cribrarius sieve maker (Latin)

D[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
d. = der, dem, des, die, das the
D. = Dorf village
das. = daselbst residing in this place, there, the previously mentioned place
Dachdecker roofer
dahier here
dänisch Danish
das the
daselbst residing in this place, there, the previously mentioned place
Datum date
Dekanat deanery
dem, den the
der the, of the
derselbe the same
des of the
deutsch German
Deutschland Germany
Dezember December
die the
Diener servant
Dienst service, employment
Dienstag Tuesday
Dienstmagd servant girl
dieser this, these
Distrikt district
Domäne domain
Donnerstag Thursday
Dorf village
dort there
drei three
dreißig thirty
dreißigste thirtieth
dreiundzwanzigste twenty-third
dreizehn thirteen
dreizehnte thirteenth
dritte third
Duplikat duplicate record
durch through
Durchfall diarrhea

E[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
E. = Einwohner residents, population
Eis. = Eisenbahn railroad, train
Ev., ev. = Evangelische, evangelisch Evangelical (Lutheran)
ebenda at the same place
Ehe marriage
Ehebrecher adulterer
Ehebruch adultery
Ehefrau wife, housewife
Ehehindernis hinderance to marriage
ehel. = ehelich legitimate
eheleiblich legitimate
Eheleute married couple
ehelich legitimate
ehemals formerly
Ehemann husband
Ehepaar married couple
Ehescheidung divorce
Eheschließung marriage
Ehestand married state
Eheverkündigungen marriage banns
Eheversprechen, Eheverspruch betrothal, engagement
Eidam (Eidmann) son-in-law
Eigentümer proprietor, property owner
ein, eine a, one, an
Einbürgerung naturalization
Einlieger landless farm laborer
eins one
Einsender informant, declarant
eintausendachthundert eighteen hundred
eintausendfünfhundert fifteen hundred
eintausendneunhundert nineteen hundred
eintausendsechshundert sixteen hundred
eintausendsiebenhundert seventeen hundred
einunddreissig thirty-one
einunddreissigste thirty-first
einundzwanzigste twenty-first
Einwanderer immigrant
Einwanderung immigration
einwilligend consenting, in agreement with, approving of
Einwilligung permission
Einwohner inhabitant
einzige only
Eisenbahn railroad
Eiterbeule abscess
elf eleven
elfte eleventh
Eltern parents
Enkel grandson
Enkelin granddaughter
Enkelkind grandchild
eod(em) the same, ditto
Epilepsie epilepsy
er he
Erben heirs
Erbschaft inheritance
erhalten received, receive
erklärt declared
Erlassung dispensation, permission
Ermächtigung authorization
Ernting August
errechnet approximated, calculated
erschien appeared
erste first
erstgeboren firstborn
ertrank, ertrunken drowned
erzeugen beget
erzeugt begat
es it
et uxor and wife (Latin)
evangelisch evangelical

F[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Fabrikant manufacturer
Fallkind illegitimate child
Familie family
Familienbuch family register
Familienforschung genealogical research
Familienregister family register
Färber dyer
Faßbinder cooper, barrel maker
Fäule cancer
Fayencenhändler porcelain merchant
Februar February
Fehlgeburt miscarriage
Festtag feast day, festival day, holy day
Festung fortress
Fieber fever
Findling foundling
Firmung confirmation
Fischer fisher
Fl. = Florin standard monetary unit
Flecken hamlet, also measles or spots
Fleckfieber spotted fever, typhus
Fleischer butcher
Fleischhauer butcher
Flüchtling refugee, deserter
Fluß river
folgende following, next
Forst forest
Förster forester
Fourier quartermaster
Fraisen convulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms
Frankreich France
Frau Mrs., wife, woman
Fräulein Miss, unmarried woman
Freibauer farmer who owns his own land
Freiherr baron
Freitag Friday
fremd foreign, strange
Freund friend
Friedhof cemetery
Friesel prickly heat, heat rash, miliaria
Friseur hairdresser
früh early (a.m.)
früher former, formerly
fünf five
fünfte fifth
fünfundzwanzigste twenty-fifth
fünfzehn fifteen
fünfzehnhundert fifteen hundred
fünfzehnte fifteenth
fünfzig fifty
fünfzigste fiftieth
für for
Fürst prince, count
Fürstentum principality

G[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
G. = Gericht court
geb. = geboren born, maiden name
Gem. = Gemeinde community, municipality, parish, town
gest. = gestorben died
get. = getauft baptized, christened
Gr. = Groß Great (part of place name)
Gärtner gardener
Gastwirt innkeeper
Gatte husband
Gattin wife
geben, gab given, gave
Gebiet region, area, zone
geboren born, maiden name
Gebühren fees
Geburt birth
Geburtsort place of birth
Geburtsschein birth certificate
Geburtsurkunde birth certificate
gegen against, towards
(im) Gegenwart (der) (in the) presence (of)
gegenwärtig currently
geheiratet married
gehört belongs (to)
Geistliche(r) clergyman
Gelbsucht jaundice
Geld money
Gemahl(in) spouse, husband, wife
Gemeinde community, municipality, parish, town
Gemeindemann village official, village resident
Gemeindsmann citizen with full rights
gemelli twins
genannt named, alias, called
Genealogie genealogy
Gerber tanner
Gericht court
Gerichtsmann juryman
Gerichtsschöffe member of the court
Gerichtsschöppe member of the court
Gerichtsschreiber court clerk
Gerichtsverwandter member of the judicial court
gesagt said, stated
Geschichte history
geschieden divorced
Geschlecht gender, sex, lineage
Geschlechterbücher lineage books
Geschlechtsname surname
Geschwister siblings, brothers and sisters
Geschwulst swelling, tumor
Geselle journeyman
Gesellschaft society, group
Gesetz law
gesetzlich legal
gestern yesterday
gestorben died
Getaufte person who was baptized
getr. = getraut married
Getraute married couple
Gevatter godfather
Gewerbe trade, occupation
gewerblos without occupation
Gicht gout, arthritis
Gilde guild
Glaube belief, faith
Glauben religious affiliation
gleich same, alike, similar, right away
Graf count (nobleman), earl
Grafschaft county
Grenze border
groß big, great, large
Großeltern grandparents
großjährig of age
Großmutter grandmother
Großneffe great-nephew
Großnichte great-niece
Großvater grandfather
Grundbuch land register
Gulden standard monetary unit, florin
Gürtler maker of straps and belts
Gut property, estate
gut good

H[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Hann. = Hannover Hanover
Herrsch. = Herrschaft manor, estate, domain
Hessen-N. = Hessen-Nassau Prussian province of Hessen-Nassau
hzl. = herzoglich of the duke
Hzt. = Herzogtum duchy
haben to have
halb half
halb drei half three = 2:30 (time)
halb eins half one = 12:30 (time)
halb zwei half two = 1:30 (time)
Halbbauer small farmer
Halbmeier small farmer
Händler trader, merchant, peddler
Hartung January
Haupt- chief, main
Haus house
Hausfrau housewife
Häusler cottager
Hausmädchen housemaid
Hebamme midwife
Heilquelle spa, bath
Heimat home, native place, homeland
Heimatschein domicile or residency certificate
Heimatsort place of birth, home town
Heirat marriage
heiraten to marry
Heiratsantrag marriage intentions
Heiratsbelege marriage supplements
Heiratskontrakt marriage contracts
Heiratsprotokolle marriage records
Heiratsschein marriage certificate
heißt is named
Hektar hectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres)
Helfer a helper, but in East Prussia a worker in a malt brewery
Heraldik heraldry
Herkunftsort place of origin
Herr Mister, Lord, lord
Herrschaft estate, dominion
Herzog duke
Herzogtum duchy
Hessische Hessian
Heuerling dayworker, hireling
Heuert, Heumonat July
heute today
hier here
hiesig, hiesige, hiesiger, hiesigen local
hiesiger Ort this place
Hinterbliebene survivors
hinterlassen surviving, left behind
Hirt herdsman
hitziges Fieber burning fever, high fever
hoch high
Hochzeit wedding
Hof courtyard, farm, yard, estate
Hofprediger chaplain
Holländer Dutchman, dairykeeper
Hornung February
Hüfner farmer
Hufschmied blacksmith
Hügel hill
hundert hundred
Hurenkind illegitimate child
Husten cough

I[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
ihr, ihr- their, her
im in the
immer always
in in, at
Inhalt content(s)
innerhalb inside of
Innung guild
Instmann tenant farmer
ist is

J[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Jäger hunter, rifleman in the military
Jahr year
Jahrestag anniversary
Jahreszeit season
Jahrhundert century
jährlich annual, yearly
Jahrzehnt decade
Jänner January
Januar January
jeder (jede, jedes) each, every
Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfer maiden, virgin, unmarried woman
Joe. Latin abbreviation for Joannem
jüdisch Jewish
Jugend youth, adolescence
Juli July
Julmonat December
jung young
Junge a youth (male)
Jungfrau, Jungfer maiden, virgin, unmarried woman
Junggeselle bachelor
Jüngling bachelor, young man
Juni June
Justmann tenant farmer (East Prussian form of Instmann)

K[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
K.K. = kaiserlich königlich royal imperial
Kaluppe, Kaluppner
Bohemian and Polish: Chalupa
Polish: chalupnik
A dilapidated house. By extension, a resident of such a house.
Kammerfrau lady-in-waiting
Kantor choirmaster, organist
Karpe carpenter
Karte map
Karrer carter
Kartei card index
Kathenmann, Katenmann cottager
Käthner, Kätner cottager
katholisch Catholic
kaufen to buy
Kaufmann merchant
kein no, not any, none
Keller wine steward; cellar, basement
Kellner waiter, receiver of revenues; steward
Kessler kettlemaker
Keuchhusten whooping cough
Kiefer cooper, barrel maker
Kind baby
Kindbetterin woman in or shortly after childbirth
Kindbettfieber childbed fever
Kinder children
Kirche church
Kirchenältester churchwarden, church elder, vestryman
Kirchenbuch parish register
Kirchengemeinde parish
Kirchenpfleger churchwarden
Kirchenrodel parish register
Kirchensprengel parish
Kirchenvorsteher churchwarden
kirchlich pertaining to church
Kirchrat member of a church council
Kirchspiel parish
klein little
Knabe boy
Knecht servant
Kolonist settler, colonist, farmer
Kommunikant communicant
Kommunion communion
Konfirmation confirmation
König king
königlich royal
Königreich kingdom
Kopulation marriage
kopulieren to marry
Kossat, Kossät, Kossath cottager
Kossattin female cottager
Kötter, Kötner, Köthner small farmer, cottager
Krämer grocer, small retailer
Krämpfe cramps,, convulsions
Krankheit disease, sickness
Krebs cancer
Kreis county
Krieg war
Kröger, Krogmann innkeeper
Küfer cooper, barrel maker
Kuhhirte cowherd
Kupferschmied coppersmith
Kurort spa
Kusine female cousin
Kutscher coachman

L[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Land land, country
Landarbeiter farmhand
Landkarte map
Landwirt farmer
lassen to let, leave, allow
lebendig living
ledig single, unmarried
legitimiert made legitimate, legitimized
Lehrer teacher
Lehrling apprentice
Leiche corpse, body
Leichenpredigt funeral sermon
Leinenweber linen weaver
Lenz spring (season)
letzte Ölung last rites, extreme unction
letzte Salbung last rites, extreme unction
Letzter latter, last
letzter Wille last will
links left
Lungenentzündung pneumonia
Lungenschwindsucht consumption, tuberculosis
lutherisch Lutheran

M[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Mädchen girl
Mädel girl
Magd maiden, maid, servant girl
Mägdlein girl, little girl
Mai May
Maler painter
Mann husband, man
männlich male
Mariengroschen, Mgr. Mariengroschen (German currency)
Markt market
März March
Masern measles
Matrikel register
Maurer mason
Meister, -meister master
Mennoniten Mennonites
Metzger butcher
Militär military
minderjährig underaged, minor
mit with, via, by
Mitglied member
Mittag midday
mittags at noon
Mitternacht midnight
Mittwoch Wednesday
Monat month
Montag Monday
Morgen morning, tomorrow
Morgen (morgen) measure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres
morgens in the morning
müheseelig Mench handicapped person
Mühle mill
Mullnäher Occupation: cheesecloth (gauze) stitcher (sewer)
mündlich verbal, verbally
Mutter Mother

N[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
N.N. = nomen nescio name not known
nach to, after, according to
Nachbar neighbor
Nachbarschaft neighborhood
nachgelassen surviving
Nachlaß estate, inheritance
Nachmittag afternoon
nachmittags in the afternoon
nächst(e) next
Nacht night
Näherin seamstress
Name name
nat. = natus, nata born
natus, nata born
neben next to
Nebenfrau concubine
Neffe nephew
Nervenfieber nervous fever
neu new
neun nine
neunte ninth
neunundzwanzigte twenty-ninth
neunzehn nineteen
neunzehnhundert nineteen hundred
neunzehnte nineteenth
neunzig ninety
neunzigste ninetieth
Nicht not
Nichte niece
nichts nothing
nie never
nieder lower
niederländisch Dutch, of the Netherlands
noch still
noch lebende still living
noch nicht not yet
Nord north
Notizen notices, miscellaneous records
Nottaufe emergency baptism
November November
Nummer number
nur only

O[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
O.A. = Oberamt governing district office
ober upper, over
ober-, Ober-
(comb. form)
chief, head; upper, over
Oberamt governing district office
oder or
öffentlich bekanntmachen make known publicly
oft often
Oheim uncle
ohne without
Oktober October
Onkel uncle
Ort place, town
Ortslexikon gazetteer
Osten east
Ostern Easter (could be March or April)
Ostermonat April
Ostern Easter
Österreich Austria
österreichisch Austrian

P[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Pächter leaseholder
Pate godfather
Paten godparents
Pest plague
Pfalz Palatinate
Pfarramt parish office
Pfarrbuch parish register
Pfarrei parish
Pfarrer parish minister, pastor
Pfingsten Pentecost
Pflegekind foster child
Pflegesohn foster son
Pflegetochter foster daughter
Platz place (location)
Pocken pox, smallpox
Polen Poland
polnisch Polish
Posamentierer A worker in the art of Posament. Posament is a technique where metal wires or threads are braided and knotted into ornaments and then sewn onto textiles. Braiding and knotting can be used together or separately.
preußisch Prussia
Priester priest
Prinz prince
Prinzessin princess
protestantisch Protestant
Provinz province
provinzial provincial

R[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Räbbe rabies
Räcke stiffness of the limbs
Racker renderer
Rademacher, Radmacher wheelwright
Radhauer wheelwright
Rathaus city hall
Ratsherr alderman
Ratsmann councilman; town councilor
Rechnung account; bill
rechtgläubig orthodox
Rechtsanwalt lawyer
reformiert reformed
Regierungsbezirk administrative area (a political jurisdiction)
Register register (a book or list)
Reich empire; kingdom
Reifer ropemaker; rope merchant
Reiter rider; cavalryman
relicta widow
relictus widower
Religion religion
ren. = renatus, renata baptized, christened
Rentner retired person
Rheuma rheumatism
Richter judge
Rodel register
Röseler whitewasher
Rössler horseman; tanner
römisch katholisch Roman Catholic
Röt measles; bloody diarrhea
Rotgerber red tanner
Ruhestand retirement
Ruhr dysentery
russisch Russian
Rußland Russia

S[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
S. = Seite page
s. = siehe see the following reference
Sachsen Saxony
Sackhuhn sailmaker
Säger sawyer
Salbung anointing
Salzmesser a salt weigher
Salzvogt salt works overseer
Samstag Saturday
Sarkhauer stonemason
Satertag Saturday
Sattler saddler, leather worker
Schacherer peddler
Schäfer shepherd
Schaffer worker; laborer; administrator
Schäf(f)ler cooper
Schaffmann worker
Schaffner conductor
Schalbelehnter,

Schaalbelehnter

one who works with scales, a weigher
Schalck, Schall servant
Scharlach, Scharlachfieber scarlet fever
Scharnemann merchant in a market
Scharrmacher wagon builder
Scharwerker day laborer on a farm
Schatter, Schattmann tax assessor
Schatzmann moneychanger; treasurer
Schatzmeister treasurer
Scheibenreisser glazier
Scheibler salt carrier
Scheiding September
Scheidler knife-blade maker
Scheidung divorce
Schein certificate
Schenkungen donations
Scherer barber; beardcutter; cloth cutter
Schichtmeister mine paymaster
Schiffbauer shipbuilder
Schiffer shipper; seaman
Schiffmann sailor
Schiffsmakler shipbroker; shipping agent
Schilderer sign painter
Schindeldecker roofer of shingle roofs
Schindelmacher shingle maker
Schinner renderer, skinner
Schirmmacher umbrella maker
Schirrmacher wagon maker
Schirrmeister master wagon maker
Schlachter, Schlächter butcher
Schlachtmann butcher
Schlachtwanter clothing wholesaler
Schlafbaas innkeeper
Schlaganfall stroke, seizure
Schlagfluß stroke
Schlieper knifemaker; cutler
Schlieter merchant
Schloß castle
Schlosser locksmith
Schlotfeger chimneysweep
Schlotthauer locksmith
Schmied smith
Schneider tailor
Schnitzer, Schnitzler woodcarver
Schopper ship's carpenter
Schornsteinfeger chimneysweep
Schosserheber tax collector
Schösser tax collector
Schotte peddler
Schottler turner; key maker
Schottilier turner; carpenter
Schreiber scribe, clerk
Schreiner cabinetmaker, joiner
Schriftsetzer typesetter
Schroder, Schröder tailor
Schröer tailor
Schröter tailor; carter; driver; cooper
Schubarth, Schuberth, Schubring shoemaker
Schuchard, Schucherd, Schuchmann, Schuckert shoemaker
Schuhmacher shoemaker, cobbler
Schule school
Schullehrer schoolteacher
Schultheiß, Schulze village mayor, head of town council
Schüssler bowl maker
Schuster shoemaker, cobbler
Schuwarte shoemaker
Schwäche weakness
Schwager brother-in-law
Schwägerin sister-in-law
Schwaiger shepherd
schwanger pregnant
schwarz black
schwarzer Tod black death; plague
Schwarzgiesser iron smelter
Schwein(e)hirt(h) pigherd
Schweisser welder
Schweiz Switzerland
Schweizer Swiss; also a dairyman
Schwendimann settler on recently burned woodland
Schwerdtfeger armorer
Schwester sister
Schwiegermutter mother-in-law
Schwiegersohn son-in-law
Schwiegertochter daughter-in-law
Schwiegervater father-in-law
Schwindsucht consumption
S.d. = Sohn des, der son of
sechs six
sechste sixth
sechsundzwanzig twenty-six
sechsundzwanzigste twenty-sixth
sechzehnhundert sixteen hundred
sechzehn sixteen
sechzehnte sixteenth
sechzig sixty
sechzigste sixtieth
See lake
Seelen souls
Seelenregister church membership list
Seelsorger minister, chaplain
Seemann sailor
Segner fisherman
Seifensieder soap maker
Seigner fisherman
Seiler rope maker
sein to be; his
seit since
Seite page
Seitenstechen stitch, pain in the side
selige (the) late, blessed
September September
Sibber sieve maker
Sibmacher sieve maker
sich himself, herself, itself
sie she, they
Sie you
sieben seven
siebente seventh
siebenundzwanzigste twenty-seventh
siebte seventh
siebzehn seventeen
siebzehnhundert seventeen hundred
siebzehnte seventeenth
siebzig seventy
siebzigste seventieth
Sieder soap maker
Siedler settler
siehe see
Sigrist sexton
sind are
so as, so, thus, such
Sohn son
Söhnlein, Söhnchen young son
Soldat soldier
Söldner mercenary soldier; day laborer
sollen should
Sonnabend Saturday
Sonntag Sunday
spät late (p.m.)
Spengler plumber; tinsmith
spur. = spurius, spuria illegitimate
Staat state
Staatsangehörigkeit citizenship, nationality
Staatsarchiv state archives
Stadt city
Stammbaum family tree, pedigree
Stand occupation, status, condition
Standesamt civil registrar’s office
starb died
Steinhauer stonecutter
Steinmetz stonemason
stellen place, put, impose
Stellmacher wheelwright
Sterbefälle deaths
sterben to die
Steuer tax
Stickfluß asthma
Stiefbruder half brother, stepbrother
Stiefkind stepchild
Stiefmutter stepmother
Stiefschwester half sister, stepsister
Stiefvater stepfather
Stillgeburt stillbirth
Straße street
Stunde hour
Sucht sickness, mania, rage
Süden south
S.v. = Sohn von son of

T[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
T.d. = Tochter des, der daughter of
T.v. = Tochter von daughter of
Tabelle index, table
Tag day
Tagelöhner day laborer
Tagner day laborer
Tal, Thal valley
Tante aunt
Tapazier (wall)paper hanger
Tapeten wallpaper, hangings
Taufe baptism
taufen to baptize
Taufpaten godparents
Taufschein baptismal certificate
tausend thousand
Testament will
Tischler cabinetmaker, furniture maker
Tochter daughter
Töchterchen young daughter
Töchterlein young daughter
Tochtermann son-in-law
Tod death
Todesart manner of death
Töpfer potter
tot dead
Totengräber grave digger
totgeboren, todtgeboren stillborn
Trauung marriage
Trennung separation, divorce
tschechisch Czech
Tschechoslowakai Czechoslovakia
Tschismenmacher shoemaker, maker of Hungarian boots
Tuberkulose tuberculosis
Tuchbereiter cloth-dresser (cropper)
Tuchmacher cloth maker, draper
Tumor tumor

U[edit | edit source]

über

GermanEnglish
u.d. = und des, und der and of
über about, concerning, over
überleben survive
Uhr o’clock, clock, watch
um at, about, around, concerning
unbekannt unknown
und and
und der and of
und des and of
unehelich illegitimate
ungarisch Hungarian
Ungarn Hungary
ungefähr about, circa, approximately
uns us
unter under, lower
Unterleib abdomen
Unterleibsentzündung abdominal inflammation, peritonitis
Unterleibstyphus typhoid fever
Unterleibsverhärtung abdomenal hardening
Unterrichter judge
Unterschrieben signed
Unterschrift signature
Unterzeichnete the undersigned
unverheiratet unmarried
Urenkelkind great-grandchild
Urgroßmutter great-grandmother
Urgroßvater great-grandfather
Urkunde record, document
Ururgroßmutter great-great-grandmother
Ururgroßvater great-great-grandfather
ux. = uxor wife

V[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Vater father
verehelicht married
Verehelichung marriage
vergangen past
vergraben buried
verh. = verheiratet married
Verkäufer seller, vendor
verl. = verlobt engaged
verlebte deceased
verloben, sich to become engaged
Verlobte fiancée
Verlobter fiancé
Verlobung betrothal, engagement
Vermieter landlord, lessor
Vermögen estate, assets
Verpächter landlord, lessor
verrichtet performed
verschiedene various
versehen given the last rights, extreme unction (e.g., dates in context of a death record)
Verstopfung constipation
verstorben deceased, defunct
Verstorbene the deceased
Verwaltung administration
Verwandten relatives
Verwandtschaft relationship
verwitwet widowed
Verzeichnis register, list, index
Vetter male cousin
vid. = viduus, vidua widower, widow
vielleicht perhaps, maybe
vier four
vierte fourth
vierundzwanzigste twenty-fourth
vierzehn fourteen
vierzehnte fourteenth
vierzig forty
vierzigste fortieth
Vogt steward, overseer
Voigt steward, overseer
Volkszählung census
volljährig of age, of legal age
vollzogen performed
von of, from, by
vor before; ago
vorgestern the day before yesterday
vorherig previous, preceding
vorheriger Tag the previous day
vorläufig for the time being
vormals formerly
Vormittags in the morning
Vormund guardian
Vorname given name
Vorstadt suburbs, outskirts of town

W[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Wagner cartwright
Waise orphan
Wald forest, woods
wann when
Wappen coat of arms
Wappenkunde heraldry
war was
waren were
warum why
was what
Wassersucht dropsy, edema
Weber weaver
Weduwe widow
wegen because of
Wehmutter midwife
Weib wife, woman
weiblich female
weil. = weiland deceased
weiland deceased
Weiland the deceased
Weiler hamlet
weiß white
Weißgerber tanner
welche which
Weltpriester a secular priest
wer who
werden to become
West west
weyland deceased
wie how
Wiedertäufer Anabaptist
Windpocken chicken pox
Wintermonat November
Wirt innkeeper
Wittib widow
Wittiber widower
Witwer widower
wo where
Woche week
Wochenbett childbed
Wöchnerin woman in childbed
woher from where
wohnen to live, residing
Wohnort place of residence
Wohnplatz place of residence
Wohnung domicile, residence
wollen to want
Wonnemonat May
Wörterbuch dictionary
wurde geboren was born
wurde getauft was baptized
würdig worthy
Wwe. = Witwe widow
Wwer. = Witwer widower

X[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
Xber, Xbris December

Z[edit | edit source]

GermanEnglish
zählen to count
Zahnkrämpfe teething
Zähnen, Zähnung teething
zehn ten
Zehnt(en)buch tithing book
zehnte tenth
Zehnten tithes
zehrendes Fieber consumptive fever
Zehrung consumption
Zeit time
Zentner hundredweight
Zeuge witness
Ziegler brick maker
Ziehmutter, -sohn,
-tochter
foster mother, son, daughter
Zimmermann Carpenter
Zivilstandsamt civil registrar's office
Zöllner publican, tax collector
zu Hause at home
Zukunft future
Zuname surname, last name
zusammen together
zwanzig twenty
zwanzigte twentieth
zwei two
zweihundert two hundred
zwei tausend two thousand
zweite second
zweiundzwanzigste twenty-second
Zwilling(e) twin, twins
zwischen between
zwölf twelve
Zwölfer member of a council
zwölfte twelfth
Sours: https://www.familysearch.org/wiki/en/German_Genealogical_Word_List
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Are German words starting with the letter 'p' really of foreign origin?

The modern German language developed out of Old High German from a Proto-Germanic (PGmc) ancestor, which in turn developed from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) (or Indo-Germanic as it is called in German).

Proto-Indo-European allowed *P as an initial consonant in words; cf Latin pater, traced back to PIE *ph₂tḗr

At some time in the first millenium BC, a Germanic tribe's dialect separated itself further and further from Proto-Indo-European to give Proto-Germanic. This came with a number of sound changes. For our example, it is important to note, that word-initial PIE *P would change into PGmc *F. Thus, the word for father turned into *fadēr

There was another consonant shift around the same time, turning PIE *b into PGmc *p, however that one was usually mid-word. Not that there are exceptions: The word platzen seems to derive from PGmc *platjaną which in turn derives from PIE *b(e)lad- or *b(e)led-. This word should have taken part in the second consonant shift, turning p into pf, but likely the modern-day word was taken from Low German, which mostly ignored that shift.

So most 'original' Germanic words would have lost any initial *p originally present and turned it into f, while only a few original *b would have migrated back into p.

Words that entered Germanic from Latin early would end up having pf as starting consonant due to the second consonant shift (cf Pferd). Words that didn't enter German until the Middle Ages didn't take part in that shift and kept their original *p, e.g. Pein from Latin poena or Papier.


Splattne's example of pereg and paum are due to the unstandardised early orthography. The sounds used in those words were most likely /b/, which the write chose to write with a p because he could. If they aren't /b/, it would require a change from *b to *p and then back to b, which is highly unlikely.

Sours: https://german.stackexchange.com/questions/1455/are-german-words-starting-with-the-letter-p-really-of-foreign-origin
Christoph Waltz Gives Jimmy Fallon a German Words Quiz

Schadenfreude and Other German Words Without Translation

Some German nouns have naturalized so well that we hardly think of them as foreigners. Kindergarten is one such word. The German word means, literally, “children’s garden,” and it was an invention of Friedrich Froebel, a German educator.

Froebel was a 19th-century educator in Germany and something of a mystic. As he taught, he came to believe that education for young children was lacking: most young children were put in something akin to day care until formal schooling began in primary school. He believed that young children should be educated, rather than merely babysat, and that they should be educated primarily through play and exploration—that the care-centers for young children should benefit not just the adults who had to go to work and needed someone to watch their kids, but the kids who were stuck in these centers. Education for Froebel was less about acquiring knowledge, and more about discovering the “inner relationship of things,” by which he meant the interrelationship between nature, the person, and the spiritual.

He opened his first kindergarten in 1837, and the curriculum had three aspects: playing with toys, so young children could become familiar with inanimate objects and how they work; playing games and singing songs, so that young children could not only exercise their bodies, but be instilled with what Froebel considered to be “spirit” and “humanity”; and gardening and caring for animals, so young children could learn empathy for plants and animals. His experimental “children’s garden” garnered much interest, and by the 1880s, kindergartens had been opened in Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Hungary, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States.

The word itself came into English in 1852—the same year that Froebel died.

Sours: https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/untranslatable-german-words

Starting german with d words

8 of our favorite ridiculously long German words

3. FreundschaftsbezeugungHere's one that even an English speaker might be able to break down, beginning with "freund," which means "friend." Twain also took umbrage at this "clumsy" term despite its sunny meaning: "demonstrations of friendship."

4. RechtsschutzversicherungsgesellschaftenThe Guinness Book of World Records recognizes this cumbersome word as the longest German word in everyday use. It means "insurance companies providing legal protection."

5. Kaftfahrzeug-HaftpflichtversicherungThose getting started in insurance must have to practice their pronunciations outside the office, because the longest word listed in the Duden German dictionary also belongs to the industry. It means "motor vehicle liability insurance."

6. DonaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitänThis word continues the theme of transportation, and is four words pieced neatly together to say "Danube steamship company captain," which it seems we cannot handle all at once in English.

7. SiebentausendzweihundertvierundfünfzigIn German, numbers also receive the compound word treatment. This is the integer 7,254, which takes 38 letters to spell out.

8. BezirksschornsteinfegermeisterLeave it to bureaucracy to produce even more clunky words. This one, which could take its place in a Mary Poppins song much like "supercalifragilisticexpialidocious," equates to "head district chimney sweep."

Sours: https://theweek.com/articles/463500/8-favorite-ridiculously-long-german-words
200 Words Every German Beginner Must-Know

What Is the Longest German Word?

The classic longest German word is Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän, clocking in with 42 letters. In English, it becomes four words: "Danube steamship company captain." However, it's not the only super long word in the German language and, technically, it's not even the longest.

German Spelling

Most languages, including English, string smaller words together to form longer ones, but the Germans take this practice to new extremes. As Mark Twain said, "Some German words are so long that they have a perspective."

But is there really such a thing as the longest German word... das längste deutsche Wort? Some of the suggested "longest" words are artificial creations. They are never used in daily spoken or written German, which is why we'll look at some words that far surpass our 42-letter title winner mentioned above. 

For all practical purposes, this longest-word contest is really just a game. It's more fun than practical and German just happens to offer us some really long words. Even a German or English Scrabble board only has room for 15 letters, so you won't find much use for these. Yet, if you'd like to play the longest-word game, here are a few selected items to consider.

The 6 Longest German Words (Lange Deutsche Wörter)

These words are listed in alphabetical order, with their gender and letter count.

Betäubungsmittelverschreibungsverordnung
(die, 41 letters)

It's a mesmerizing word that is rather difficult to read. This lengthy one refers to a "regulation requiring a prescription for an anesthetic."

Bezirksschornsteinfegermeister
(der, 30 letters)

This word may be short in comparison to those below, but it is a real word that you might be able to use someday, but even that's not likely. Roughly, it means a "head district chimney sweep."

Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft
(one word, no hyphen) (die, 79 letters, 80 with the new German spelling that adds one more 'f' in ...dampfschifffahrts...)

Even the definition is a mouthful: "association of subordinate officials of the head office management of the Danube steamboat electrical services" (the name of a pre-war club in Vienna). This word is not really useful; it's more of a desperate attempt to lengthen the word below.

Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän
(der, 42 letters)

As mentioned, in classic German this is considered the longest word. Its meaning of "Danube steamship company captain" makes it unusable for the majority of us, though.

Rechtsschutzversicherungsgesellschaften
(die, plur., 39 letters)

This is one you might actually be able to pronounce if you take it one syllable at a time. It means, "legal protection insurance companies." According to Guinness, this was the longest German dictionary word in everyday usage. However, the word below is a longer legitimate and official "longest word"—in semi-everyday usage, anyway.

Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz
(das, 63 letters)

This hyper word references a "beef labeling regulation and delegation of supervision law." This was a 1999 German Word of the Year, and it also won a special award as the longest German word for that year. It refers to a "law for regulating the labeling of beef"—all in one word, which is why it is so long. German also likes abbreviations, and this word has one: ReÜAÜG.

German Numbers (Zahlen)

There is another reason why there really isn't a single longest German word. German numbers, long or short, are written as one word. For example, to say or write the number 7,254 (which is not really a very long number), the German is siebentausendzweihundertvierundfünfzig.

That is a single word of 38 letters, so you could imagine what larger and more complex numbers may look like. For this reason, it's not difficult at all to make a number-based word that far exceeds any of the other words we've discussed.

Longest English Words

For comparison sake, what are the longest words in English? Contrary to popular belief, the record holder is not "supercalifragilisticexpialidocious" (an invented word made famous in the movie "Mary Poppins"). Just as in German, there is disagreement about which word is actually the longest. There's little argument, however, that English can't keep pace with German in this department.

The English language's two contenders are:

Antidisestablishmentarianism (28 letters): This is a legitimate dictionary word from the 19th century meaning "opposition to the separation of church and state."

Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis (45 letters): The literal meaning of this term is "lung disease caused by breathing in silica dust." Linguists claim this is an artificial word and that it does not deserve true "longest word" billing.

Likewise, there are many technical and medical terms in English that qualify as long words. However, they are usually excluded from consideration for the longest word game.

Watch Now: Fun German phrases, sayings and idioms

Sours: https://www.thoughtco.com/longest-german-word-in-the-world-4061494

You will also like:

German Words Beginning with d

D … Dachgestühl
Dachgiebel … dahinleben
dahinsagen … Damm
dämmen … dankbar
Dankbarkeit … darstellbar
darstellen … das Für und Wider
das Gebäude ist statisch einwandfrei … das ist kein Honiglecken
das ist kein Zuckerlecken … das Speerwerfen
das Spiel anpfeifen … Dateiverwaltungsprogramm
Dateiverzeichnis … dauerhaft
Dauerkarte … dazu tendieren, etw zu tun
dazugeben … Deckungsbeitrag
Deckungsbeitragsrechnung … Deichbruch
Deichsel … Delegationschef
delegieren … demokratisch
demolieren … Denke
Denken … Depotbank
Depotbewertung … der Krug geht so lange zum Brunnen, bis er bricht
der langen Rede kurzer Sinn … derb
Derby … Desorientiertheit
Desoxyribonukleinsäure … Deutschfreundlichkeit
Deutschland … DFB
DFÜ … dichtbehaart
Dichte … die ausgehende Post
die Auslese … die Kinder umziehen
die Klagemauer … die üppig ausfallenden Dividenden
die USA … Dienstalter
Dienstauffassung … dieser
dieser Fehler ist mir entgangen … Dinge, die ich vordringlich erledigen muss
Dinger … Dirne
dis … Dissertation
dissertieren … Doktorand
Doktorarbeit … Dompteur
Donau … Doppelkonsonant
Doppellaut … dornenreich
Dornfortsatz … down
down sein … drangehen
drangehen, etw zu tun … Dreckarbeit
Dreckfinger … Dreieck
dreieckig … dreitägig
dreiteilig … drittklassig
Drittland … drück dich etwas konkreter aus
Druck-Erzeugnis … drunter
Drüse … duftig
Duftkissen … Dunkelkammer
dunkelrot … durchbeißen
durchbekommen … durchfliegen
durchfließen … durchkommen
durchkönnen … Durchreisende
durchreißen … Durchschuss
durchschütteln … durchwagen
Durchwahl … düsengetrieben
Düsenjäger … Dynastie

Filed Under: German words

Sours: https://www.wordlistresearch.com/2018/11/german-words-beginning-d/


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